DEKALB, Miss. – In the woods of east Mississippi, a subsidiary of Atlanta-based Southern Co. is pouring billions of dollars into construction of a power plant that burns coal but would emit less carbon dioxide. Its a response to looming federal limits on carbon emissions as regulators try to curtail global warming.
Each day, as 2,600 construction workers toil away at Plant Ratcliffe in Kemper County, the big bet becomes more expensive. The projected cost is at least $2.8 billion, almost half a billion dollars above original expectations, and some estimates say it will go higher.
Legal challenges brought by the Sierra Club have led regulators to block the company from billing customers for the costs so far, although Southern subsidiary Mississippi Power Co. got closer to that goal with a favorable lower court ruling last month.
Southern CEO Thomas Fanning stands by the plant. He says Southerns own technology will mitigate its environmental impact and the need to exploit coal as a hedge against uncertainties in the future cost of natural gas, which is currently cheap and abundant.
But there are risks.
The Kemper plant is the most expensive project ever built by Southern subsidiary Mississippi Power Co. The company promises completion in May 2014, but some engineers monitoring construction for state regulators warn the cost could reach $3.1 billion, and completion isnt likely until November 2014 at the earliest.
Those same engineers, with the firm Burns & Roe, say the plants linchpin coal-to-gas technology isnt certain to work.
Fanning says some setbacks at Kemper have been seen in the company stock price. As of December, shares were down about 5 percent over the previous year, but Southerns stock has closely tracked shares of other big utilities in that time.
Morningstar analyst Mark Barnett says he respects Southerns ability to manage big projects, but says Kemper might dent Mississippi Powers finances if costs keep mounting. This is an outsized project for such a small utility, Barnett said.
As the Kemper project goes on, Southern also is at work on two additional nuclear reactors at Plant Vogtle, about 30 miles southeast of Augusta, Ga. The $14 billion project will be funded in part by $6 million from Southern subsidiary Georgia Power Co. Southern also owns Alabama Power Co. and Floridas Gulf Power Co.
Vogtle and Kemper County, even despite where gas prices are today, are exceedingly attractive resources for the future, Fanning told The Associated Press.
The plants reflect Southerns decision not to become overly reliant on natural gas. Fanning argues gas cant be expected to remain cheap for decades, the lifecycle utilities consider for power plants. How Kemper and Vogtle turn out are likely to define Fannings legacy, as the company stated in the last chapter of a 534-page history it published last year titled Big Bets. The book, published for Southerns 100-year anniversary, is meant to encapsulate past lessons for future leaders.
Part of that past has been coal. Five years ago, 70 percent of Southerns power came from coal, with only 11 percent from natural gas. The company now generates 35 percent of its power from coal and 47 percent from gas.
But given federal regulations against carbon dioxide emissions, few utilities are now building coal plants.
Southerns response at Kemper is to convert the coal to a gas, strip out carbon dioxide and other hazardous chemicals, and burn the gas for power.
Southern expresses confidence in technology developed and tested at Wilsonville, Ala. But Burns & Roe, the engineering firm that warns the Kempers cost will top $3 billion, warns there is still a technology risk, partly associated with scaling up the gasifier to Kempers larger size.
The company would sell the carbon dioxide to be pumped into the ground for energy companies seeking to push up more oil from old oil fields.
We are the Saudi Arabia of coal – very high-quality stuff. Weve got to find a way to continue to preserve that important national energy resource to be used for the benefit of our citizens, Fanning said. What were doing here in Kemper County, I think, may be a way forward for coal in America. It is that important.
The Sierra Club – which opposes coal-burning plants nationally – claims the plant could harm the environment and raise customer bills by 45 percent or more. Mississippi Power says the rise in bills would be closer to 33 percent before falling.
The Sierra Club says Southern should convert it to burn natural gas, an expense that would be costly for shareholders and ratepayers.